The racial gap in punitiveness persists even after noting important caveats about criminal justice polling methods. The state claims that tougher penalties are one of the major causes of declining crime rates. The list of such features included telescoping or folding stocks, pistol grips , flash suppressors , grenade launchers , and bayonet lugs. If for instance in a measured drop hanging, there is no obvious struggling or movement after the drop and the autopsy finds that the neck has been broken and the spinal cord severed then it is reasonable to conclude that the person died a pain free death. Public Opinion Quarterly, 77 4 , — British Journal of Criminology, 46, — Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 81 2 , — p. The Committee was not reassured. As Professor Lawrence Tribe has noted, the U. And yet non white women being hanged in Jordan and Singapore, the large number of people publicly beheaded in Saudi Arabia and men and women executed by the hundred in China make very little news. Click here to read a personal view from the stance of a victim, Ali Stein whose blog is linked to with her permission. The court ruled that the penalty shall be decided in consideration of the degree of criminal liability and balance of justice based on a nine-point set of criteria. Many opponents of capital punishment put forward life in prison without parole as a viable alternative to execution for the worst offenders, and surveys in America have shown that life without parole LWOP enjoys considerable support amongst those who would otherwise favour the death penalty. Together, these studies reveal that even white Americans who denounce racism still hold unconscious and unintentional racial biases, associating people of color with criminality. Whether acting on their own implicit biases or bowing to political exigency, policymakers have fused crime and race in their policy initiatives and statements. In , Timothy McVeigh was executed for the murder of eight federal law enforcement agents under that title.