In the Indian subcontinent, early marriage and pregnancy is more common in traditional rural communities than in cities. Role of drug and alcohol use[ edit ] Inhibition-reducing drugs and alcohol may possibly encourage unintended sexual activity. In most European countries, by contrast, once an adolescent has reached the age of consent, he or she can legally have sexual relations with adults because it is held that in general although certain limitations may still apply , reaching the age of consent enables a juvenile to consent to sex with any partner who has also reached that age. In societies where children are set to work at an early age it is economically attractive to have many children. It violates the rights of girls, with life-threatening consequences in terms of sexual and reproductive health, and poses high development costs for communities, particularly in perpetuating the cycle of poverty. According to The Encyclopedia of Women's Health, published in , there has been an increased effort to provide contraception to adolescents via family planning services and school-based health, such as HIV prevention education. Poverty is associated with increased rates of teenage pregnancy. Over concern about side-effects, for example weight gain and acne , often affect choice. Joseph Hotz and colleagues, published in , found that by age 35, former teen mothers had earned more in income, paid more in taxes, were substantially less likely to live in poverty and collected less in public assistance than similarly poor women who waited until their 20s to have babies. For instance, long-term studies by Duke University economist V. For example, in some sub-Saharan African countries, early pregnancy is often seen as a blessing because it is proof of the young woman's fertility. Many teenagers are not taught about methods of birth control and how to deal with peers who pressure them into having sex before they are ready. Countries with low levels of teenagers giving birth accept sexual relationships among teenagers and provide comprehensive and balanced information about sexuality. That is because the Latino population is the least uninsured group in the Unites States  Young mothers who are given high-quality maternity care have significantly healthier babies than those who do not.